A therapeutic external use of Agni in a particular body region is called Agnikarma. It could also be called the therapeutic burn.
S.Su. 12-2 (D`alhan`a)
- Its superiority and importance –
- Agnikarma Chikitsaa is superior to Kshaarakarma.
- Non-responding diseases to medicine, surgery or Kshaarakarma are curable by Agnikarma.
- The diseases that are cured by Agnikarma do not recur.
Types of Dahanopakaran`aani and their exact action on the tissues of body:
They could be classified as –
- Vanaspatija – Pippalee, (Pipper Longum) Yasht`imadhu (Glycerrhiza Glabra Linn.) Haridraa (Curcuma longa), Gud`a,( jaggery) Sneha – Taila, Sarjarasa (herbal)
- Praan`ija – Ajas`hakrita, Godanta, Madhoochchhisht`a (animal-origin)
- Metallic and others – Panchadhaatu (Gold, Silver, Copper, Iron and Brass)
S`hara Shalaaka, Jambavausht`ha, Sooryakaanta, Soochi, Stone
- Tvakgata Vaata Vikaara: Pippalee, Ajas`hakrita, Godanta, S`hara S`halaakaa
- Maamsagata Vikaara – Jambavausht`ha, Panchadhaatu S`halaakaa Kshaudra
- Siraa, Snaayu, Sandhi, Marma, Madhu (Kshaudra), Gud`a (Jaggery), Sneha.
Sites – Siraa, Snaayu, Sandhi, Asthi and Marma
- If there is bleeding from Siraa, Agnikarma should be undertaken as the last measure to control bleeding. It is one of the popular methods for controlling bleeding.
- As Agnikarma performed on Maamsaalso acts on Siraa, Snaayu, Asthi, Sandhi, no separate Agnikarma need be performed
- Marmasthaana is the absolute contraindication for Agnikarma.
- Kaala (Time) for Agnikarma:
Greeshma Ritu and S`harad Ritu are unsuitable for Agnikarma.
In an acute condition, Agnikarma should be done by taking precautions against likely Pittaprakopa after Agnikarma.
It should only be done by giving Pichchhila Anna except in Agnikarma for As`hmaree, Mootravaahi Naad`ivran`a, Bhagandara, Ars`ha, and Mukharoga (where food should not be given.)
In the Vartma Roga, it should be done by protecting the eye with water soaked cotton pad but keeping the eyelids open for Vartmadahana.
- Diseases and conditions where Agnikarma should be carried out:
- S`hiroroga, Adhimantha, at Bhroo – Lalaat`a – S`hamkha Prades`ha.
- Hard, Non-painful / painful, over granulatedwounds, situated at Tvachaa, Siraa, Snaayu, Sandhi, Asthi
- Ars`ha, Arbuda, Bhagandara, Apachi, S`hleepada, Charmakeela, Tilakaalaka, Antarvidradhi, Amputed/ cut Siraaand Sandhi, Naad`ivran`a, and bleeding from blood vessels.
S.Su.12-9 and 12-10.
- Unfit Patients for Agnikarma: –
- Pitta Prakriti, Haematomain wounds, burst abdomen with damage to Kosht`haanga_s (like liver, stomach, bladder etc.), wound with suspected foreign body, debilitated patients, children, older people, and timid individuals.
- Those having Paan`d`u, Madhumeha, Raktapitta, (Bleeding tendency – Hemophiliacs), Asvedya etc. are contraindicated for Agnikarma.
- Dahana Prakaara:
Vilekhaa – [linear fashion], Bindu [dot], Valaya [circular], Pratisaaran`a / space for figure [scratching], Ardhachandra [half moon shaped], Ardhachandraardha [ 1/4th moon shaped], Svastika, Asht`apaada [ star with eight appendages]
S.Su.12 –11. and A.H.Su.30.8
- According to depth or due to Pramaada [fault] of Vaidya, Dagdha is also classified as:
- Tvak Dagdha and Maamsa Dagdha – It is not that Dagdha on Siraa, Snaayu, Sandhi and Asthi is absolutely contraindicated.
S.Su.12-7 and (D`alhan`a.)
- Pramaada Dagdha – this is also known as Dagdha. It is sub classifiedas – Plusht`a Dagdha, Durdagdha, Asamyak Dagdha, and Atidagdha. It is accidental.
- According to the material, which has caused the Dagdha – i. Hot Snehadagdha – vegetable oil, or ghee, or wax, ii. Rooksha Dagdha – hot hard substances, hot stone, bark of tree, hot bamboo, Panchadhaatu etc. Sneha Dagdha always produces more pain as hot Sneha penetrates the skin and other tissues by entering through Siraa.
- Signs and symptomsof different types of Dagdha:
- Tvak Dagdha: A typical noise “Choorra”, a foul smell, and contraction of skin.
- Maamsa Dagdha: Skin becomes Kapota Varn`a (blue green), with a little Oedemaand pain, Vran`abecomes dry and narrowed
- Siraasnaayu Dagdha: The Dagdha Vran`a gets elevated and becomes black and Vran`abecomes dry as the Sraava (Discharge is obstructed)
- Sandhyaasthi Dagdha: Vran`abecomes non-glossy (lusterless), becomes copper red, and Asthi becomes non-shining
- Siraa Dagdha: discharge of Serum. S.Su.12-8.
- Selection of Dagdha Dravya for Dagdha and its Criteria:
After taking into consideration the season and place where the Agnikarma is to be carried out, severity and condition of the disease, patient’s strength, and avoiding the Marmasthaana, Agnikarma of selected types like Bindu, Valaya, Rekhaa and determining Dhaatu – Tvachaa, Maamsa etc. Dagdha should be done.
- Effects of Aganikarma on the body:
Immediately after Dahana, Rakta and Pitta are vitiated chronologically. Agni and Pitta are of Ushn`a Veerya and their Rasa is Kat`u. Dagdha increases the intensity immediately, and depending on the site and size of Dagdha, burning pain, Jvara (pyrexia) and signs and symptoms of Marmaaghaata develop.
At the site of Dagdha, there is formation of blister on the skin, and Maamsaand Snaayuget separated. This occurs either immediately or slowly. This variation will depend on the size and depth of the burn and the region of the body, e.g. mouth, chest and the area of burn
- Signs and Symptoms of Dagdha related to temperature and depth of Dagdha:
- Plusht`a Dagdha – Change in the color of the skin, which becomes a little red. There is no formation of a blister but there is intense burning.
Give a little fomentation. Due to Dagdha, there is coagulation of blood at the site of the burn, which obstructs the flow of Vaayu (Vaayu becomes Aavritta). This results in stagnation of heat at the site of the burn. Fomentation (hot) helps to liquefy the clotted blood warmth results in vasodilatation, which opens the channels which release Vaayu ultimately, resulting in reduction of swelling and the burning pain.
If we give cold fomentation there is more Skandana (coagulation) of blood creating more and more obstructive pathology resulting in more Oedema, burning and pain. This treatment is called Virudhaarthkaarin`ee Chikitsaa.
S.Su.12-16 and A.H.Su. 30- 47. and S.Su.12-20, 21 22 and Chakrapaan`i
There is formation of a blister with burning and dragging (Chosha) sensation, inflamed Oedema, redness and pain. These symptoms disappear in short time.
It depends upon depth. If it is deep, give a cold fomentation to allow the heated blood to go out. Here, cold acts as an antagonist.
- If the burn is superficial give a hot fomentation to allow the blood to liquefy.
- Other treatment: Application of Ghrita, Lepa and Avasechana.
- Some says that if there is severe burning, a cold fomentation should be given and if the burning sensation is less, give a hot fomentation.
S.Su.12-22 and (D`alhan`a)
In Samyak Dagdha, the Dagdha is superficial. The color of the area is bluish green (Kapota Varn`a) and has other signs of Tvak and Maamsa Dagdha.
In Samyak Dagdha, to alleviate and pacifythe vitiated Rakta, Pitta and pain, bathe the wound with honey and ghee or Yasht`imadhu Ghrita. Give Lepa of Tugaaskheeri, Plaksha, Fucus Lacor, Chandana, Santalum, Gud`oochee (Tinospora Cardifolia) & ghee. Apply Graamyaanoopaudaka Maamsa.
Give the treatment of Pitta Vidradhi.
S.Su.12-13 and 23-24.
Sign and Symptoms:
It results in loss of limb, excessive damage to Maamsaand Snaayu, complications in relation to Siraa, Snaayu, Sandhi, Asthi, and fever (temperature) burning pain, thirst and in extreme cases unconsciousness. The wound takes a long time to heal and never acquires the normal color and texture.
- If there are signs and symptoms of Marmaaghaata priority should be given to it
- Dead muscles and tissues should be removed (Debridement)
- Give Lepa of the pulp of rice ground in ghee.
- Put leaf of Kamalapatra Ne Lumbo Nucifera or Gud`oochee Patra on it.
S.Su.12-16 and 25 26
- Treatment of Snehadagha and Rooksha Dagdha:
- In Sneha Dagdha, give Rooksha treatment
- In Rooksha Dagdha give Snehana treatment S.Su.12-29
- Treatment of Burns due to other causes:
- Due to hot air – All S`heetopachaara
- Due to ice or frost. Snigdha and Ushn`opachaara
- Due to lightning bombs, electricity – usually results in death but if survives symptomatic treatment according to Marmaaghaata and Snehana, Abhyanga, Parisheka according to the type of burn.
S.Su.12- 38 39,
Universal Ointment: Ropan`a Ghrita for any type of burn
Bee Wax, Madhuka, Symplocos Raci– Shorea RobustaRubia Cordifolia, Chandana and Murvasiddha Clematosi Triloba Gouriana Ghrita
S.Su.12- 27, 28.
Signs and Symptoms:
This condition is produced due to inhalation of smoke produced by burning material – like, stems and wood of trees, coal gas, in a closed room.
Thirst [Trishn`aa], Daaha, Jvara, Tandraa, Glaani, slow respiration and pulse etc. as it enters the lungs during respiration it produces dyspnoea, sneezing, cough, smell of smoke to exhaled air. He has a perception of the smell of smoke. Only by the sense of taste he recognizes salt and hot [Lavan`a and Kat`u]. He is unable to hear anything. If smoke enters in the Gastro – intestinal tract, there is distention of abdomen.
If he cannot get fresh air, it results in cyanosis, slow respirations and pulse, stupor, unconsciousness and finally death.
- Bring the patient into the open air and if possible, give Praan`avaayu. Give treatment of slow respiration like Hemagarbha
- Give emetics like Ghrita, Ikshurasa Sacchrum Munja, Draakshaarasa, VitisVinifera, milk, S`harkaraa Jala, and Madhuraamla Rasa. A good vomit stops Body acheregulates temperature, burning sensation giddiness, Trishan`aa, Aadhamaana, cough and Dyspnoea.
- Give Kavala – of Madhura, Lavan`a, Tikta and Amla Rasa. Give S`hirovirechana Nasya. When toxic symptoms disappear, give a soft easily digestible (Laghu) and Snigdha Aahaara.
Dr. R. B. Gogte
Ex – Professor and H.O.D. Department of Shalya,
Tilak Ayurved Mahavidyalaya and Hospital, Pune
Last updated on April 16th, 2021 at 09:30 am